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XRP Ledger

| May 13, 2024

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Key Takeaways

The primary focus of the XRP Ledger lies in cryptocurrency payment systems. It also presents opportunities for creating Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), stablecoins, and tokenizing diverse digital assets. The XRP Ledger provides one of the most comprehensive and feature-rich payment solutions available in the market.

What is XRP Ledger?

The XRP Ledger is a decentralized public blockchain. It is designed for quick, cost-effective, real-time transfer of XRP, fiat currencies, and various digital assets. Notably, it is open source, inviting participation from anyone interested in its advancement.

You might be familiar with Ripple, a payment network utilizing XRP tokens for cross-border transactions. What you may not realize is that Ripple operates atop the XRP Ledger (XRPL).

Launched in 2012 by Ripple’s co-founder and CEO, Chris Larsen, the XRP Ledger initially powered the Ripple payment network. However, it has since been embraced by other entities like Coil and Omni, who seek to explore its potential in various Web3 contexts.

How does XRP Ledger Work?

XRP Ledger is distinct from Bitcoin or Ethereum. It operates on a unique Federated Consensus mechanism for transaction validation.

Transactions within the XRP Ledger are validated through a consensus protocol. Usually, validators reach an agreement on the sequence and outcome of XRP transactions. Every validator in the network processes transactions based on identical rules. This helps ensure immediate confirmation for transactions that adhere to the protocol. Transparency is inherent as all transactions are public, and anyone can operate a validator. Presently, there are over 150 validators on the ledger, spanning universities, exchanges, businesses, and individuals globally. XRP Ledger has maintained uninterrupted operations since January 2013, overseeing billions of completed transactions.

XRP Ledger leverages the Federated Consensus mechanism. It sustains a throughput exceeding 1,500 transactions per second (TPS), with confirmation speeds ranging from 3 to 5 seconds. Users benefit from nominal transaction fees (typically less than one cent). Additionally, no single participant dictates transaction priority. The system ensures resilience against single points of failure. Since the decisions are not made independently by any individual participant.


Much debate surrounds the disparities between XRP and Bitcoin. While some similarities exist in their respective domains, the contrasts between them are significant, including the following:

1. Consensus Mechanisms

XRP and Bitcoin employ distinct consensus mechanisms for transaction validation. XRP utilizes a unique consensus mechanism reliant on trusted validators. The Unique Node List (UNL)/ validators help determine the transactions to include in the next ledger. For a transaction to gain validity, a consensus among the majority of trusted validators is necessary. Conversely, Bitcoin relies on miners solving complex mathematical puzzles through proof of work to validate transactions.

2. Cost-effectiveness, Speed, and Energy Efficiency

XRP’s distinctive consensus mechanism enables quicker and more economical transaction verification. It has considerably lower energy consumption. In contrast, Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies experience longer confirmation times. They have a higher transaction cost due to the mining process inherent in their proof-of-work mechanism. Bitcoin’s extensive energy consumption can be attributed to this proof-of-work process.

3. Scalability of XRP

The XRP ledger provides scalability, supporting up to 1,500 transactions per second. In comparison, Bitcoin averages between four and five transactions per second. On the other hand, Ethereum maintains approximately 13 transactions per second. Bitcoin’s scalability challenges have been addressed to some extent with the introduction of the Lightning Network, designed to enhance its scalability.

Application of XRPL

The XRP Ledger (XRPL) serves as more than just a cryptocurrency; it’s a robust blockchain platform with diverse applications. It revolutionizes cross-border payments by offering rapid, cost-effective solutions. Traditional cross-border transactions involve intermediaries, high fees, and delays. XRPL changes the game with settlements in seconds. Such features make it ideal for financial institutions and remittance services.

Moreover, XRPL is leading the charge in decentralized finance (DeFi). It provides a secure platform for various DeFi applications. Its smart contracts and decentralized exchange capabilities lay the groundwork for transparent and secure lending, borrowing, and trading of digital assets within the DeFi ecosystem.